ICE Building Materials LCA


The 'boundaries' represented by each embodied CO2 factor are described in CarbonKit as follows;

  • "Cradle to grave" - embodied CO2 from entire life cycle of material
  • "Cradle to gate" - embodied CO2 from resource extraction to factory gate
  • "Cradle to site" - embodied CO2 from resource extraction to final point of use (e.g. building site)
For reinforced concrete, see this related methodology.

How to use this category

Selecting an emissions scenario

To use this category, use drill-downs to specify the material, type and subtype.

Specifying activity data

Next, enter the quantity used using the mass profile item.

Results and calculation

The quantities returned represent embodied energy and CO2 emissions associated with the quantity specified. The following quantities are returned:

  • energy: embodied energy, in Megajoules
  • CO2: embodied CO2


Data ranges

Several embodied CO2 factors presented in ICE are specified as a range of values. In such cases, CarbonKit provides the option of choosing minimum or maximum values.

Insulation plastics

Data for polystyrene- and polyethylene-based insulation materials are referenced from the 'plastics' category in ICE.

Derived CO2 factors

ICE contains many materials for which only embodied energy is specified. Only materials which include either (a) an explicit embodied CO2 factor, or (b) an embodied energy factor plus the associated energy fuel split (from which embodied CO2 can be derived) are included within CarbonKit. The latter method was used to derive embodied CO2 factors for clay/limestone bricks and wood-wool reinforced concrete.

YQQE4K7NM3VJ aggregate
LK4EV3ELOUEG aluminium, cast products, primary
J52VK0VQHZUR aluminium, cast products, secondary
8K0PCXMV7M94 aluminium, cast products, uk typical
LJK9C9CDFVX1 aluminium, extruded, primary
HEJCZW0B8FO2 aluminium, extruded, secondary
D2DI5EVMJLSX aluminium, extruded, uk typical
XUVHVVVP2XOA aluminium, general, primary
XPGPYIC04YYQ aluminium, general, secondary
V5AQN6EKT94V aluminium, general, uk typical
OW090GJ3SOTP aluminium, rolled, primary
VDVMPXCV33S7 aluminium, rolled, secondary
DEBQLAHIGYX5 aluminium, rolled, uk typical
SKBFV8P08W5E asphalt, general
OUIIRYWFTUPL asphalt, roads & pavements
NGLIUWH3Z0QS brass, general
JM5P6KWINE3E brass, primary
S9LKLSXRJW97 brass, secondary
GLJD0ZBKQSHH carpets, felt (hair & jute) underlay
99AKKCCXH07Q carpets, general
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Name: ICE_Building_Materials_LCA
Full path: /embodied/ice
Parent Category: Embodied