Iron and steel generic processes


Metal industry methodology, general iron and steel processes. Calculates carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and CO2e emissions based on the quantities of materials produced. Choices include coke, iron, steel, sinter. Globally applicable.


This methodology represents carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions associated with the a number of processes employed in the iron and steel industry. The data and calculation methodology is sourced from Volume 3, Chapter 4 - Metal Industry Emissions of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

The methodology

Emissions model

This methodology enables the calculation of CO2 and CH4 emissions associated with a selection of production processes associated with the iron and steel industry (coke, iron, steel, sinter production). The methodology is based upon emissions factors which describe the typical rate at which emissions occur in relation to the quantity produced. Multiplying a quantity produced by the appropriate emissions factors results in an estimate for the associated emissions.

This methodology represents the IPCC Tier 1 approach.

Model data

The rate at which emissions occur varies according to the specfic process under consideration. This methodology provides CO2 and CH4 emissions factors for 9 distinct processes commonly employed in the iron and steel industry.

Activity data required

CO2 and CH4 emissions are directly proportionate to the quantity of material produced, which is therefore required in order to calculate.

Calculation and results

Emissions are calculated by multiplying the quantity produced by the appropriate emissions factors. CO2e emissions are also calculated by converting absolute emissions using the appropriate global warming potentials.

Related methodologies

Higher tier IPCC methodologies for iron and steel-associated process emissions are also available, including tier 2/3 methodologies for iron and steel production, sinter, direct reduced iron and coke production. These methodologies require more detail information regarding the feedstocks and products involved in the processes under consideration.

Z5GJJ4O1NK17 direct reduced iron
D9TCO6ZTFLZ7 pellet
AQCJQGPP04XA pig iron
1V7NUOXV0B7F sinter
ZRHDEZDOKH7O steel, average
QVKC1OPVF89W steel, basic oxygen furnace
OD1EDI74097F steel, electric arc furnace
CEGXMF3Y1NY7 steel, open hearth furnace
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Name: Iron_and_steel_generic_processes
Full path: /business/processes/production/ironandsteel/generic
Parent Category: Production Iron and Steel
Provenance: IPCC-NGGIP