Mass based fuel combustion by DEFRA


Mass based stationary combustion of fuels. Calculates direct, indirect and life cycle carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions associated with fuel combustion on the basis of mass combusted.


This methodology represents greenhouse gas emissions associated with the stationary combustion of fuels as measured on the basis of fuel mass. The data and calculation methodology originates from the UK government department DEFRA, as published in their most recent greenhouse gas (GHG) conversion factors documentation.

The methodology

The emissions calculation methodology is based upon emissions factors which relate a mass-based quantity of fuel, with its associated quantity of greenhouse gas emissions. These values vary, depending on factors such as the concentration of carbon and moisture within each fuel type.

Model data

Each fuel type is represented by six distinct emissions factors, which differentiate greenhouse gas emissions into the following types:

  • 'direct CO2 emissions': carbon dioxide emissions produced during fuel combustion
  • 'direct CH4 emissions': methane emissions produced during fuel combustion
  • 'direct N2O emissions': nitrous oxide emissions produced during fuel combustion
  • 'total direct emissions': sum of all direct emissions, i.e. CO2 + CH4 + N2O
  • 'indirect emissions': emissions associated with stages in the fuel production chain such as raw material extraction and fuel delivery
  • 'life cycle emissions': the total of direct and indirect emissions

Activity data required

Calculations are based on the amount of mass used during combustion of the chosen type of fuel.

Calculation and result

The following quantities are calculated on the basis of the amount of mass combusted and associated emission factors: CO2, CH4, N2O, total direct CO2e, full life cycle CO2e.

Users should note that all quantities (including the separated CH4 and N2O emissions) are expressed in terms of CO2e - the quantity of CO2 that would exert the same atmospheric warming effect and the emissions quantity.

Related methodologies

Other DEFRA methodologies are available for fuel combustion with energy and volume based calculations.

Fuel properties, such as density and calorific values, can be found here.


Renewable Fuel Considerations

Separate Emission factors are provided for diesel, petrol, a diesel+biodiesel blend (= 4.2% by unit mass, 4.0% by unit volume, 3.7% by unit energy), and a petrol+bioethanol blend (= 3.1% by unit mass, 2.9% by unit volume, 1.9% by unit energy). Blended fuel emission factors are a weighted average of those respective fuels provided at UK public refuelling stations as a proportion of the total supply. These estimates have been made based on the most recently available reports on the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO).

FDRSPUXA9OWH aviation spirit
JQCAAFFBPPUB aviation turbine fuel
K9K02MPBA74C burning oil
48CM11EF6MG1 cng
UODEZBSHIJWD coal (domestic)
9SL3A4MG57MT coal (electricity generation)
G1T601LZ7T5T coal (industrial)
257YIEMURXDM coking coal
O1J5MBM1H36Y diesel
1UVPHMV24IZE diesel (retail station biofuel blend)
00V8F467WMWV fuel oil
EOQ1WLRH5F6G gas oil
UIQSM1YNHJFY lubricants
LLO5GJRVR6OH naphtha
3YRM8EKZKFBJ other petroleum gas
002O1KYW2DW9 petrol
NGUEV7XV1D4F petrol (retail station biofuel blend)
02ATQY0SMFEK petroleum coke
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Name: Mass_based_fuel_combustion_by_DEFRA
Full path: /business/energy/stationaryCombustion/defra/mass
Parent Category: Fuel combustion by DEFRA
Provenance: DEFRA